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Address: Calwerstraße 14
72076 Tübingen

Person profile: 07071 29-82311

Fax number: 07071 29-4141

History of the clinic

History of the clinic

This text was revised and completed in 1996 by M. Leonhardt and M. Bartels, in 2004 by C. Dedner.

  • From 1995In 1995, taking into account new developments, the clinic was renamedUniversity Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy. Today it consists of the Departments of General Psychiatry and Psychotherapy with Polyclinic, Section of Neurophysiology, Section of Addiction Research as well as Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy with Polyclinic. The Department of General Psychiatry comprises ten psychiatric wards (including two protective, "closed" wards, one gerontopsychiatric special ward, two detoxification wards, one specialised psychotherapy ward for patients with alcohol problems and one specialised psychotherapy ward for patients with addiction problems).The hospital has a total of 141 beds, the polyclinic, an outpatient clinic, a day clinic for the elderly and the general day clinic, each with 20 treatment places.

    In 1996, the partial renovation of the clinic was essentially completed. The neurophysiology section with EEG, EMG, brain mapping and Doppler sonography, clinical psychology and a clinical-chemical laboratory are of importance for the diagnostic and scientific area. The psychopharmacological and psychophysiological laboratory (with sleep laboratory) serves mainly scientific purposes.

    Therapeutic options include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, movement therapy, occupational therapy and physical therapy. The social service, which currently has four employees, plays an important role in the regulation of social issues and in sociotherapy. Workshops belonging to the clinic (mechanic's workshop, gardening, carpentry) and a sports field can also be used for therapeutic measures.

  • From 1990Lempp's successor was Gunter Klosinski in 1990. Klosinski was senior physician at the Clinical Youth Home until 1986, when he accepted a call to the chair of child and adolescent psychiatry in Bern. He is concerned with the significance of sects and youth religions from the perspective of child and adolescent psychiatry, as well as with family dynamic problems and questions of a psychotherapeutic approach to children and adolescents differentiated according to age groups.

    In 1967, the Department of Psychoanalysis, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics was established as the first German chair of this kind under the direction of Wolfgang Loch (1915-1995). Loch had previously worked with Alexander Mitscherlich in Heidelberg and Frankfurt and was influenced by Michael Balint. His work focused on psychoanalytic theory and the theory of illness ("Die Krankheitslehre der Psychoanalyse", 5th edition 1989). Loch was one of the outstanding personalities in psychoanalysis in Germany after the Second World War. After him, Heinz Henseler took over the chair. He came from Ulm and, in addition to methodological questions, dealt mainly with the problem of suicide from a psychoanalytic point of view ("Narzißtische Krisen", 2nd edition 1984).

    After Schulte's sudden death, Lempp was acting director of the clinic from 1972 to 1974. He handed over the leadership to Hans Heimann in 1974. Heimann worked under Jakob Klaesi and Max Müller at the Psychiatric University Clinic in Bern (Waldau) and habilitated in 1953 with the monograph "Die Skopolaminwirkung. Comparative psychopathological-electroencephalographic studies". From 1964 to 1974 he was head of the research department of psychopathology at the Psychiatric University Hospital of Lausanne. In addition to his psychopathological and psychophysiological research, his work extends to areas of psychopharmacology, border areas of psychiatry to philosophy and religion and questions of research methodology in psychiatry. Influenced by Ludwig Binswanger, the existential-analytical view is important to him as a counterweight to the scientific objectivity of neurobiological research. Heimann continued the tradition of the multidimensional approach at the clinic with new accents.

    In 1979 a section for neurophysiology was established in the clinic, headed by Mathias Bartels. Since 1975, alcoholic patients can be treated on a specialized ward in a six-week program with subsequent outpatient aftercare.

    In addition, there has been another addiction ward since 1990, where qualified detoxification (with motivational therapy) is carried out. This offer was extended in 1997 by a drug detoxification ward.
    In order to meet the need for longer-term therapy options for chronically ill patients or patients threatened by chronification, the aftercare clinic was founded in 1975 with 16 places.

    The aftercare clinic is run by a separate association, but is closely linked to the psychiatric clinic in terms of staff through a cooperation agreement. It is a medical rehabilitation facility in which mainly younger patients, some of them severely disturbed, are treated within the framework of a multidimensional therapy programme.

    In 1988, the clinic was given its own section for forensic psychiatry, headed by Klaus Foerster.Foerster's scientific focus is on assessment problems with pension neurotics, diagnosis and quantification of personality disorders, recording of so-called "affective acts" and psychotherapy for offenders.
    After Heimann's retirement, Gerhard Buchkremer took over as director of the clinic on October 1, 1990.
    Buchkremer had been assistant and senior physician with Tölle in Münster and had habilitated in 1984 with a thesis on "Recurrence prophylaxis in schizophrenic patients". His research also focuses on linguistic-analytical studies of communication style in families with schizophrenic patients and therapeutic options for smoking cessation.
  • From 1960From 1960 to 1972Walter Schulte (1910-1972)was head ofthe neurological clinic. He was a student of Hans Berger in Jena, the inventor of the EEG. He had worked in Bethel and was director of the Landesheil- und Krankenanstalt Gütersloh. His experiences there were reflected in his book "Klinik der Anstaltspsychiatrie" (1962). Schulte was the first to discover the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation and systematically introduced it into depression treatment. He advocated a close connection between neurology and psychiatry and accordingly attached great importance to the existence of two neurological wards within the clinic. In addition to publications from the neuropsychiatric borderline area (among others on syncopal seizures, founding of the "Almanach für Neurologie und Psychiatrie"), he dealt with the personal relationship and its effect between doctor and patient, problems of endogenous psychoses - especially melancholia - and gerontopsychiatry. His textbook "Psychiatry", written together with Rainer Tölle, was first published in 1971 and is now already in its 10th edition.

    In the meantime, the clinic structures have become more differentiated. In January 1972 the day clinic was opened, which had a pilot function in Germany. In 1966, the Clinical Youth Home became independent as the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry under its director Reinhart Lempp, who had worked for Kretschmer. Lempp was concerned with the significance of early childhood brain damage as a vulnerability factor for the development of mental disorders, with the psychoses of childhood and adolescence including their psychotherapy, and with forensic psychiatric issues.

  • From 1936From 1936 to 1944 Hermann F. Hoffmann (1891-1944), a pupil of Gaupp, was director of the Nervenklinik. His study of offspring was the first to deal systematically with the descent of endogenous psychoses. He was concerned with the relations between hereditary disposition and personality, disposition and life curve, character and environment. He continued Gaupp's dynamic approach and sought the possibility of an understanding psychiatry on a biological basis.
    Hoffmann had joined the NSDAP in 1933 and was appointed rector of Tübingen University in 1937. As "rector in SA uniform" he was one of the exposed National Socialists of the university. Contrary to the National Socialist sterilization law, Hoffmann did not see any indication for sterilization in the case of affective psychoses, but in the case of the so-called asocial psychopaths he energetically pleaded for exceeding the legally set framework. As far as is known, the clinic was not involved in the so-called "euthanasia actions" in the Third Reich.

    After Hoffmann's death, Wilhelm Ederle ran the clinic and its hospital department until 1945. Ederle had brought Sakel's insulin treatment to Tübingen in 1936. Remedial convulsive therapy was introduced, a serological laboratory was set up and neurological activity was more strongly developed. The separate X-ray department established before the war now made encephalographic and angiographic neurodiagnostics possible.

    At the end of February 1945, Werner Villinger (1887-1961) temporarily took over the management of the clinic.
    He went to Marburg in 1946 and exchanged places with Ernst Kretschmer (1888-1964), who had already worked under Gaupp in Tübingen. Kretschmer was director of the Nervenklinik from 1946 to 1960. He had adopted the dynamic approaches of psychiatry under Gaupp and developed them further in his work on "delusion and manic-depressive symptom complex" and especially in his elaboration of the sensitive relationship delusion.

    He introduced for the first time the concept of multidimensional diagnosis into psychiatry. His systematic synthesis of physical constitution theory and character science made him known to broad sections of the population and opened up new aspects in medicine, psychology and anthropology. In 1921 "Physique and Character" (26th edition 1977) was published, in 1922 "Medical Psychology", in 1923 "Hysteria", in 1929 "Ingenious People" and in 1949 "Psychotherapeutic Studies".
  • From 1894After a long history that can be traced back to the beginning of the 19th century, the Psychiatric University Hospital Tübingen was opened in November 1894.
    Wilhelm Griesinger (1817-1868) played a significant role in the initiatives that eventually led to the establishment of the clinic. As director of the Medical Clinic in Tübingen, he began lecturing on psychiatry in 1845 after a long break.
    The first director of the newly founded clinic was Ernst Siemerling (1857-1931) from 1893 to 1901. Siemerling devoted himself especially to the pathological-anatomical examination of nervous diseases, the description of clinical pictures and forensic-psychiatric problems.

    After his call to Kiel, Robert Wollenberg (1862-1942) became director of the clinic from 1901 to 1906.
    Both he and Siemerling were students of K. F. O. Westphal. Wollenberg became known for his clinical presentations especially on melancholia and hypochondria. In 1906 he followed a call to the University of Strasbourg.

    His successor in Tübingen was Robert Gaupp (1870-1953). He directed the clinic from 1906 to 1936 and was one of the defining figures of German psychiatry. Gaupp had worked in Breslau with Carl Wernicke together with Karl Bonhoeffer and had been with Emil Kraepelin in Heidelberg and Munich. In a 1902 lecture, he had attempted to grasp the limits of psychiatric knowledge, advocating the proposition: Not one cause, but several first create mental illness. As a result of his work as a military hospital doctor, he was concerned with the problem of traumatic neuroses, which, in contrast to Oppenheim and other psychiatrists, he rejected as consequences of commotio cerebri and saw in them purely psychogenic disorders. With his decades of observation and description of the illness of Wagner, the chief teacher, for which he became famous, Gaupp established the dynamic approach in psychiatry by describing personality, experience, and illness in the development of madness.
    Under Gaupp, after a makeshift preliminary stage in the construction of the clinic, the children's department of the Nervenklinik was opened in 1920, which also experienced its first heyday under its first director Werner Villinger.

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