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Neurofeedback and stimulation


Research Aims

The research focuses on the self-regulation of neurophysiological signals through reward learning and classical conditioning in healthy individuals as well as in neurological and psychiatric patients. Self-regulation of local brain activity utilizes state-of-the-art neurophysiological instrumentation such as real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electromyography (EMG). The volitional self-regulation of activity of circumscribed brain areas with neurofeedback affects behavior, neurorehabilitation, and psychiatric and psychological disorders. Furthermore, Brain Computer interfaces (BCI) utilize this methodology to provide paralyzed patients (e.g. with amytrophic lateral sclerosis) with the possibility to send messages and commands to the external world without using their muscles or language, thus enabling direct brain communication. Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) in severe chronic stroke allows rehabilitation of completely paralyzed upper limbs.





Ander Ramos-Murguialday




Andrea Caria


Anna Zamorano

5.) Bin Xia
6.) Boris Kleber
7.) Christoph Braun
8.) Chiara Fioravanti
9.) Daniele De Massari
10.) Diljit Sing Kajal
11.) Guilliermo Gallegos Ayala
12.) Hubert Preißl
13.) Jürgen Mellinger
14.) Kim Sunjung
15.) Maartje Spetter
16.) Manfred Hallschmidt
17.) Mohit Rana
18.) Paolo Rogerio
19.) Ranganata Sitaram
20.) Rahim Malekshahi
21.) Sergio M. Ruiz
22.) Surjo R. Soekadar
23.) Ujwal Chaudhary
24.) Ute Strehl



Current projects
  • Brain-Computer-Interaction (BCI) for communication in paralyzed patients with amyothrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Bin Xia, Ujwal Chaudhary, Guillermo Gallegos Ayala, Sandra Veeser, Niels Birbaumer)
  • Anterior insula self regulation in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with rtfMRI (Korhan Buyukturkoglu, Sergio Ruiz, Ranganata Sitaram, Niels Birbaumer)
  • The role of anterior insular cortex in interoception, sleep, emotional awareness and social behavior in health and in neuropsychiatric illness. (Andrea Caria, Rahim Malekshahi and Daniele De Massari, Niels Birbaumer)
  • Cognitive training of conscious perception by functional connectivity feedback in healthy subjects and schizophrenia (Chiara Fioravanti, Diljit Singh Kajal, Jurgen Mellinger, Jurgen Dux, Christoph Braun, Sergio M. Ruiz Poblete, Ranganatha Sitaram, Niels Birbaumer)
  • Modulation of pain perception by rt-fMRI functional connectivity feedback in patients with fibromyalgia (Pedro Montoya, Wolfgang Larbig, Ignacio Cifre, Boris Kleber, Anna Zamorano, Mohit Rana, Ranganatha Sitaram, Niels Birbaumer)
  • Training of functional connectivity between eating-related brain areas by rt-fMRI neurofeedback training for obesity and diabetes (Manfred Hallschmid, Hubert Preiβl, Maartje Spetter, Albert van der Veer, Ralf Veit, Mohit Rana, Andreas Fritsche, Andrea Caria, Niels Birbaumer)
  • Facilitating sleep and treating insomnia with EEG-Neurofeedback training (Boris Kleber, Hong-Viet Ngo, Sandra Veeser, Ander Ramos, Niels Birbaumer, Jan Born)
  • Neuronal Mechanisms of Learning Brain Self-regulation: Computational Modeling and Experimental Validation by Multimodal Imaging in Primates and Humans (Paolo Rogiero, Ali Zaidi, Srinidhi HC, Andreas Schmidt, Ranga Sitaram, Matthias Munck)
  • Neuroergonomics and user experience (Niels Birbaumer, Sunjong Kim, C. Walter)
  • Neurofeedback of Slow Cortical Potentials for Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Kerstin Mayer, Ute Strehl, in colaboration with the Clinic for Psychotherapy and Psychiatry, University Hospital Tuebingen)



Key publications
  • N. Birbaumer, A. Ramos-Murguialday and L. Cohen, Brain-Computer-Interface (BCI) in paralysis. In: Current opininon in Neurology Vol. 21(6):634-638, 2008
  • Ramos-Murguialday, A., Hill, J., Bensch, M., Martens, S., Halder, S., Nijboer, F., Schoelkopf, B., Birbaumer, N., Gharabaghi, A (2011); Transition from the Locked in to the completely Locked in State: a physiological analysis. Clin.Neurophysiol. 122 (2010) 925-933
  • Ramos-Murguialday A, Schürholz M, Caggiano V, Wilgrüber M, Caria A, Hammer EM, Halder S, Birbaumer N. Proprioceptive feedback and brain computer interface (BCI) based neuroprostheses. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(10):e47048.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047048
  • Ramos-Murguialday A, Broetz D, Rea M, Laeer L, Yilmaz O, Brasil FL, Liberati G, Curado MR, Garcia-Cossio E, Vyziotis A, Cho W, Agostini M, Soares E, Soekadar S, Caria A, Cohen LG, Bibaumer N. Brain-Machine-Interface in Chronic Stroke Rehabilitation: A Controlled Study. Annals of Neurology (2013). DOI: 10.1002/ana.23879
  • Birbaumer, Niels et al., Trends in Cognitive Sciences , Volume 17 , Issue 6 , 295 - 302


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